Well, I have a few thoughts I’ll expound on, but firstly I want to say you probably don’t really have to worry about it too much. If you’re storing it in your house, not on or near a heating vent, it is probably ok. Most wines aren’t meant to be cellared for years, and should be really consumed within a year or two of buying them. So, unless you’re amassing an expensive and old collection, you don’t really need a true cellar with temperature and moisture control.
The most important thing to remember with wine is that it really needs stability (don’t we all?) Fluctuations between extreme temperatures are what will cause issues with corks expanding and shrinking (thus letting in oxygen) or prematurely age your wine. Extreme heat can also cook your wine, causing off flavors.
Ideally, you should keep your wine in the coolest (not coldest- forget the garage,) darkest part of your house. If you have a basement (that isn’t prone to flooding) then this is the ideal spot.
If you’ve got a lot of money lying around collecting dust, then you can get a temperature controlled wine-fridge. But really, they aren’t necessary.
What about putting whites in the fridge and keeping them there? Well, this isn’t a great idea either. A), it takes up too much room, B) the fridge is too cold and cold air can cause some cork shrinkage, C) it might not be moist enough in there for the cork.
Here’s what you want to remember: You want to have an environment away from light, heat, freezing, and too much sloshing. Also, it is a safer bet to store your wine on its side so that the wine inside makes contact with the cork and keeps it from drying out (this also helps sediment settle so it doesn’t slosh up when you tip it to pour.) Drink most white wine within 3-4 years of bottling, and most red within 3-6. It’s gonna get old otherwise and really not be tasty anymore. That’s it! Relax, open a bottle, and enjoy!